Greater Romania was forged on the battlefields of the First World War, in the democratic assemblies of Transylvania, Bukovina and Bessarabia and no less in the meeting rooms of the Paris Peace Conference. When the guns felt silent, it took brilliant diplomatic skills, strong arguments and wide European connections in order to translate the reality of united Romania into the treaties and norms that defined the new status quo.
WINNING THE PEACE (1919-1920)
12th January 1919
THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE BEGAN.
The main objective of this diplomatic summit, which assembled the most powerful leaders of the day, was to restore political balance in Europe and in the world after the end of the Great War. The Romanian delegation, headed by Prime Minister Ion I.C. Brătianu, aimed at entrenching the unification of the Romanian historical provinces into the final resolutions of the Conference, according to the freely and democratically expressed will of the Romanians, who constituted the majority population in these provinces.
16th April 1919
APRIL 16-18, 1919: THE BATTLE OF THE APUSENI MOUNTAINS BETWEEN THE ROMANIAN AND HUNGARIAN ARMIES TOOK PLACE.
After the establishment of the Hungarian Republic of Councils (of Communist orientation), the Hungarian army initiated hostile actions against Romania in order to regain Transylvania. The Romanian troops, however, prevailed and advanced towards the Tisa river.
28th June 1919
THE PEACE TREATY OF VERSAILLES WITH GERMANY WAS SIGNED.
Through the articles of this treaty, Germany undertook the commitment of recognising territorial changes established in the Peace Conference, including those concerning the unification of Transylvania, Bukovina and Bessarabia with Romania.
20th July 1919
JULY 20-26, 1919: HUNGARIAN TROOPS ATTACKED ROMANIA AGAIN
The Romanian counter-offensive ended with the occupation of Budapest on August 4. Through this action, the Romanian army prevented the establishment of a Bolshevik government in Central Europe, which would have had catastrophic consequences for peace in Europe.
2nd November 1919
NOVEMBER 2-6, 1919: THE FIRST ELECTIONS BASED ON UNIVERSAL VOTE IN ROMANIA TOOK PLACE.
No party obtained a majority of votes.
10th December 1919
ROMANIA, THROUGH ITS DELEGATE, GENERAL CONSTANTIN COANDĂ, SIGNED THE TREATY OF SAINT-GERMAIN WITH AUSTRIA.
Romania agreed to sign the document after long negotiations. The Treaty recognised the abolition of the Austro-Hungarian dualist Monarchy. On the same day, Romanian delegates also signed the Neully-sur-Seine Peace Treaty with Bulgaria.
29th December 1919
THE ROMANIAN PARLIAMENT RATIFIED THE UNIFICATION OF TRANSYLVANIA, BUKOVINA AND BESSARABIA.
10th January 1920
THE SOCIETY OF NATIONS, BASED IN GENEVA, WAS ESTABLISHED.
4th June 1920
THE TREATY OF TRIANON WITH HUNGARY WAS SIGNED.
This treaty recognised the unification of Transylvania, Banat, Maramureș and Crișana with the Old Kingdom of Romania, established in 1881 on the basis of the previously unified principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia (1859). The border between Romania and Hungary was delineated within the treaty. This document bound Hungary to respect the borders of other neighbouring countries with which it had territorial disputes: Austria, Czechoslovakia and the Serbo-Croat-Slovenian state. Prime Minister Apponyi’s insistence in challenging the democratic character of the Great National Assembly in Alba Iulia was rejected. On behalf of Romania, the Treaty was signed by Nicolae Titulescu and Ioan Cantacuzino.
28th October 1920
ROMANIAN FOREIGN MINISTER TAKE IONESCU SIGNED THE COLLECTIVE TREATY ON BORDERS IN PARIS.
This treaty recognised the unification of Bessarabia with Romania. Thus, in legal terms, the unification of all Romanian provinces was completed.
This website has been set up as part of the programme celebrating the Centenary of United Romania (1918-2018).
This website is created and financed by the Romanian Cultural Institute (RCI) through the Romanian Cultural Institute in London and the RCI’s Department of Promotion and Communication.